Conflict And Insecurity In Balochistan

Conflict And Insecurity In Balochistan

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CONTENTS
Introduction........................................................ 07
Chapter 1: Factors of Conflict
1. Geographical Factors .................................... 13
2. Political Factors .............................................. 16
a. Relations with the Centre ...................... 17
b. Governance .............................................. 19
3. Economic Factors ........................................... 22
a. Development ........................................... 23
b. Control and Distribution of
Resources ................................................. 27
4. Social Factors .................................................. 29
a. Ethnicity and Culture ............................. 30
b. Religion .................................................... 37
5. Security: Physical and Socio-cultural ......... 39
a. Nationalist Insurgency ........................... 40
b. Attacks on NATO Supplies ................... 43
c. Sectarian Violence ................................... 45
d. Attacks on Schools .................................. 46
e. A Comparison of Security
Situation in Balochistan and FATA ...... 49
Chapter 2: Actors
1. Nationalist Insurgents .................................. 59
a. Balochistan Liberation Army (BLA) ..... 64
b. Balochistan Liberation Front (BLF) ...... 65
c. Baloch Republican Army (BRA) ........... 65
d. Baloch Liberation United
Front (BLUF) ............................................ 66
e. Lashkar-e-Balochistan ............................ 67
f. Balochistan Students
Organization (BSO) ................................ 67
2. Religious/Sectarian Extremists .................. 70
a. Quetta Shura Taliban
Myth or Reality? ...................................... 70
b. Al Qaeda .................................................. 74
c. Tehrik-e-Taliban Balochistan ................ 74
d. Jundullah .................................................. 76
e. Lashkar-e-Jhangvi ................................... 77
f. Imamia Students Organization ............. 78
3. Smugglers and Crime Syndicates ............... 78
4. Relations and Nexuses .................................. 81
5. Political Parties .............................................. 82
6. The State and its Security Apparatus ......... 90
a. Frontier Corps ......................................... 91
b. Police ......................................................... 93
c. Balochistan Levis .................................... 93
7. Civil Society and Development
Agencies .......................................................... 93
Chapter 3: Dynamics of Conflict
1. Historical Context ........................................ 105
2. Triggers of Violence .................................... 112
a. Akbar Bugti’s Murder .......................... 113
b. Enforced Disappearances and
Illegal Detentions .................................. 114
c. Conflict-induced Internal
Displacement ......................................... 116
d. Target Killings ...................................... 118
e. Floods ..................................................... 121
3. Regional Context and External
Factors ........................................................... 122
4. Analysis of Future Scenarios ..................... 131
a. Scenario One: Moving Towards
Peace and Conflict Reduction ............. 131
b. Scenario Two: Status Quo .................... 132
c. Scenario Three: Moving Towards
State Failure or Bloodshed ................... 132
Chapter 4: State Responses and Capacities
........................................................................ 139
Chapter 5: Strategic Policy Options for Peace and Security
............................................................................. 151
1. Federal Government ................................... 152
2. Provincial Government .............................. 153
3. Political Parties ............................................ 155
4. Security Forces ............................................. 156
5. International Agencies ................................ 156
Bibliography
........................................................................ 159
Appendices
........................................................................ 163
Note on Contributors
........................................................................ 191